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Typically, each body segment has one ganglion on each side, though some ganglia are fused to form the brain and other large ganglia.

The head segment contains the brain, also known as the supraesophageal ganglion.

The PNS is divided into a) somatic and b) autonomic nervous system, and c) the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems.

Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily.

Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves.

The neurons that give rise to nerves do not lie entirely within the nerves themselves—their cell bodies reside within the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral ganglia Glial cells (named from the Greek for "glue") are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.

In the human brain, it is estimated that the total number of glia roughly equals the number of neurons, although the proportions vary in different brain areas.

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